Icon Energy Annual Report 2023 59 ICON ENERGY LIMITED AND ITS CONTROLLED ENTITIES FOR THE YEAR ENDED 30 JUNE 2023 (b) Principles of Consolidation (c) Critical accounting estimates and judgments Exploration and evaluation expenditure Restoration provision (d) Income Tax Estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to the estimates are recognised prospectively. The estimates, assumptions and judgements that are material to the financial report and have a significant risk of causing a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities within the next financial year are discussed below. All inter-company balances and transactions between entities in the Consolidated Entity, including any unrealised profits or losses, have been eliminated on consolidation. NOTE 24 - STATEMENT OF ACCOUNTING POLICIES (Continued) Current tax is the expected tax payable/(receivable) on the taxable income or loss for the year, calculated using applicable income tax rates enacted, or substantively enacted, as at the reporting date. Current tax liabilities/(assets) are therefore measured at the amounts expected to be paid to/(recovered from) the relevant taxation authority. Where controlled entities have entered or left the Consolidated Entity during the year, their operating results have been included from the date control was obtained or until the date control ceased. Income tax comprises current and deferred tax. The application of the Group's policy for exploration and evaluation discussed in Note 24(g) requires the board of directors to make certain estimates and assumptions as to future events and circumstances. Any such estimates and assumptions may change as new information becomes available. Deferred income tax expense/(benefit) reflects movements in deferred tax asset and deferred tax liability balances during the period as well as unused tax losses. The Consolidated Entity assesses its future liabilities in relation to the restoration costs which include the removal of facilities, abandonment of wells and restoration of affected areas. The estimate of future restoration costs is done at the time of installation of the assets. In most instances, removal of assets occurs many years into the future. Therefore, directors are required to make judgments regarding the removal date, future environmental legislation, the extent of restoration activities and future removal technologies. The Consolidated Entity assesses its restoration provision at each reporting date. Refer to note 10 for key assumptions. Exploration and evaluation expenditure is assessed for impairment in line with AASB 6 Exploration for and Evaluation of Mineral Resources. When the circumstances suggest that the carrying amount of an exploration and evaluation expenditure asset may exceed its recoverable amount, the Group measures any impairment loss and discloses it in the consolidated statement of profit or loss and other comprehensive income. To make the judgement the Group involves independent valuation experts that determine the value as disclosed in note 7. There is therefore the risk that actual values realised may be materially different to those disclosed in these financial statements. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are ascertained based on temporary differences arising between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts in the financial statements. Deferred tax assets also result where amounts have been fully expensed but future tax deductions are available. No deferred income tax will be recognised from the initial recognition of an asset or liability, excluding a business combination, where there is no effect on accounting or taxable profit or loss. Current and deferred income tax expense/(benefit) is charged or credited directly to equity instead of the profit or loss when the tax relates to items that are credited or charged directly to equity. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are calculated at the tax rates that are expected to apply to the period when the asset is realised or the liability is settled, based on tax rates enacted or substantively enacted at reporting date. Their measurement also reflects the manner in which management expects to recover or settle the carrying amount of the related asset or liability. NOTES TO THE CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS A controlled entity is any entity controlled by Icon Energy Limited. Control exists where Icon Energy Limited is exposed, or has rights, to variable returns from its involvement with the investee and has the ability to affect those returns through its power over the investee. A list of controlled entities is contained in Note 17 to the accounts. All controlled entities have a June financial year end. The board of directors evaluates estimates and judgments incorporated into the financial statements based on historical knowledge and best available current information. Estimates assume a reasonable expectation of future events and are based on current trends and economic data, obtained both externally and within the Group. The actual results may differ from the resulting accounting estimates.